Monday, October 3, 2022

What Is Blockchain Supply Chain

How Costly Is Blockchain For Supply Chain

What is Blockchain in Supply Chain Management? | AIMS UK

It depends on how you use it. Initially, we started using public blockchains back in 2016 to record hashes -essentially fingerprints of the data- that were sent from ERP systems. We did a few tests where it would not only put hashes but store more data, and it was very costly.

When we applied a common-sense approach towards using blockchains, so using it for what its only intended to be as a layer of trust, we could significantly lower the cost.

For exchanging and storing data, blockchain is way more expensive, but you will not use it for that: it is like comparing apples and peaches. In terms of value, using blockchain -the right way, that is only as a consensus layer- is significantly surpassing the value of using centralized data.

Q: What Is Blockchain And What Is It For

Blockchain technology can simplify, record, track and secure transactions among parties, whilst embedding trust by design. A blockchain is a decentralized ledger or record of all the transactions in a network with the participants in this network confirming the transactions, known as blocks, themselves. This consensus effect can remove the need for the traditional trusted third-party intermediary role . Meanwhile, cryptographic functions enable very high levels of security, negating tampering and revision.

In addition, the opportunity to create smart contracts offers significant value. This is business logic, set by computer code that defines the terms and conditions, enabling automatic monitoring, execution, and enforcement of an agreement. For example, this might be around the exchange of money, property, or information. Current applications of blockchain extend far beyond cryptocurrencies to areas such as supply chain management, finance, government and voting, health records, gaming, oil and gas, and fashion.

Bumble Bee Seafoods Providing Consumers With Insights On Food Origins

With an objective to provide consumers with a better insight into their food origins, Bumble Bee Seafoods uses the blockchain technology to trace tunas journey from the ocean to the local retailers. Consumers can access the origin as well as history of Bumble Bee Seafoods tuna by using their smartphones and scanning the QR codes given on the bags of tuna steaks.

Not only this, but the blockchain market in the supply chain domain is also expected to grow exponentially in the coming years.

The growing adoption of the technology in supply chain domain is making now the ebay time to partner with a skilled Blockchain development company and discover the many use cases of the technology & process convergence.

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Kys What Blockchain Provides

As weve noted in previous papers in this series, blockchain technology is an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently, and in a verifiable and permanent way. It addresses each of the main know your supplier issues fairly comprehensively:

  • Privacy concerns blockchains cryptography provides peace of mind, ownership and control
  • Manual processing automation enables smart contracts and cuts down on paperwork
  • Lack of trust blockchain provides full traceability, enabling an end-to-end audit trail
  • Accountability blockchain establishes a trusted ID, so everyone can be certain of who is sending information, or requests for information. This facilitates the secure exchange of certificates and verified credentials
  • Lack of visibility by providing an ecosystem of network connectivity, blockchain facilitates network mapping, and simplifies direct outreach.

Capgemini has developed a blockchain-based asset, called Trusted Data Exchange, designed to bring those benefits in the context of KYS. Trusted Data Exchange establishes private, peer-to-peer communications between buyers and suppliers, each of whom has its own secure and structured vault of data and documents. The identity of each party is firmly established, and the end-to-end, tamper-proof audit trail keeps track of any exchange of information.

Blockchain Changes The Supply Chain

Infographics: What is Blockchain?

Blockchain allows the exchange of information to be greatly simplified and allows processes to be designed more quickly and securely. The technology therefore offers enormous potential, particularly for the optimization of supply chains. Applications based on blockchain offer a radical new communication pathway within complex supply chains thereby improving trust, security and speed. There are numerous examples from a range of industries demonstrating blockchains potential for logistics. The best-known example is Track & Trace. This term refers to the traceability of products within a supply chain.

PwC has considerable experience in global projects where blockchain applications are used to optimize the supply chain. We depend on a broad ecosystem of partners but we also develop our own technical solutions and systems.

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How Does Blockchain Work

Blockchain is a form of distributed ledger technology that holds records of digital data or exchanges in a way that makes them tamper-resistant. When a transaction is requested on the system, its broadcast to a peer-to-peer network comprising several interconnected computers called nodes. Each of these solves equations to check and validate the transaction for consistency across the network. Once validated, the transaction is grouped with other transactions to create a block of data for the ledger.5

Businesses can use blockchain technology to track any transaction, making it possible to share documents, personal information, and cryptocurrencies. Because the ledger is fully distributed across the network, its very difficult to corrupt. To make a change in the ledger, youd have to log the change on every node across the entire network simultaneously. If this isnt done, the network recognizes that one record doesnt match the rest and flags the transaction as corrupt.6

Think of the technology as resembling a Google document, where many people can view and edit the same document simultaneously, instead of a Word document thats locked and owned by one person. Every node on the network can access and make changes to the system simultaneously, with Track Changes always on.

What Are The Blockchain Use Cases In Supply Chain Management

Enterprise blockchain technology can transform the supply chain with these three use cases:

  • Traceability
  • Transparency
  • Tradeability

Traceability improves operational efficiency by mapping and visualizing enterprise supply chains. A growing number of consumers demand sourcing information about the products they buy. Blockchain helps organizations understand their supply chain and engage consumers with real, verifiable, and immutable data.

Transparency builds trust by capturing key data points, such as certifications and claims, and then provides open access to this data publicly. Once registered on the Ethereum blockchain, its authenticity can be verified by third-party attestors. The information can be updated and validated in real-time.

Tradeability is a unique blockchain offering that redefines the conventional marketplace concept. Using blockchain, one may tokenize an asset by splitting an object into shares that digitally represent ownership. Similar to how a stock exchange allows trading of a companys shares, this fractional ownership allows tokens to represent the value of a shareholders stake of a given object. These tokens are tradeable, and users can transfer ownership without the physical asset changing hands.

ConsenSys is a global leader in implementing supply chain solutions. Treum, a ConsenSys company, builds asset and industry agnostic supply chain solutions, including Food, Consumer Products, Oil & Gas, Healthcare, Luxury Goods, Energy, Land, and Art.

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How Blockchain Will Radically Improve The Supply Chain

Recent technological advancements and rapid manufacturing growth are having a considerable impact on the global supply chain. For example, artificial intelligence is taking over quality control, Internet of Things devices and drones are monitoring manufacturing and maintenance, and more than 1.9 million robots are already deployed in manufacturing and warehousing globally.1

Historically, innovation has often disrupted supply chains in various, significant ways. For instance, the introduction of the PC in the 1980s led to dramatic shifts in supply chain management. Organizations increasingly adopted PCs for word processing, daily operations, and accounting, while map-based interfaces and flexible spreadsheets allowed for more efficient logistics and supply chain planning.2

Today, companies need to be agile, flexible, and responsive to survive. Those that drive continuous innovation throughout their businesses and supply chains and differentiate themselves in a highly competitive market by remaining dynamic and relevant are the ones that succeed.

As the pace of change accelerates, improving the efficiency and transparency of your organizations supply chain becomes critical. Fortunately, blockchain technology can help simplify the process.

How Complicated Are Supply Chain Operations

Blockchain in Supply Chain | Soumya Choudhury | TEDxIIMBangalore

Supply chain operations is a complex area due to a number of reasons, such as:

  • Many supply chains span multiple jurisdictions, such as different countries or different states in countries with federal systems. The cross-border nature of these supply chains necessitates dealing with customs and border control. Customs and border regulations in some countries may be extremely bureaucratic and sometimes change with little notice.
  • Modern supply chains typically involve different actors, such as original manufacturers, distributors, resellers, warehouse operators, transportation companies, customs authorities, and retail stores. Due to issues of trust, there is usually a need to thoroughly check that the actual information entered into the supply chain software matches the real state of things. For example, retail operators need a way to ensure that the condition and quality of goods-in-transit reported by the transportation company match the reality.
  • The involvement of multiple jurisdictions and actors requires detailed documentation. Generating, updating, and verifying this documentation is a complex task in itself.

Modern supply chain management software is dominated by large enterprise software companies such as SAP and Oracle. As there is a need for different actors along the supply chain to collaborate, there has been a recent move towards cloud-based supply chain solutions.

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Freight Invoicing: Dhl Global Forwarding Focuses On One

While Maersk and other shipping giants strive to create the end-to-end supply chain system, DHL Global Forwarding, an air and ocean freight division of the worlds largest logistics brand, invests in solving a more specific issue. Since July 2019, the industry leader has been collaborating with Hewlett Packard Enterprise to build a blockchain app eliminating errors in one-off orders or requests for shipments lying outside a standard freight contract.

Testing the minimum viable product proved that among other benefits technology could dramatically simplify the approval process, ensure 100 percent invoice accuracy, and minimize manual interventions. Now the freight giant is looking forward to expanding the use of the solution.

How Blockchain Can Automate Procure

In previous papers in this series, weve looked at the broad challenges faced in the supply chain, and at how blockchain technology can address them. Weve also looked specifically at traceability, and at how blockchain can enhance transparency and accountability between supply chain participants.

This time were focusing on procure-to-pay processes, which can cause significant problems for everyone in the supply chain. Frequently considered to be slow, inefficient, and prone to error, the P2P process is also exposed to reconciliation problems and the risks of fraud. In this paper, we will examine how blockchain can streamline and automate P2P processes by reconciling purchase orders, invoices and receipt of goods.

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Blockchain For Supply Chain Management: Use Cases And Applications

Greater visibility into the origin and movement of goods and more accurate and timely supply chain data to address inefficiencies and risks in todays global value chains. Without a way to synchronize information among multiple parties along the supply chain, each organization records its own version of the truth, leading to errors, high costs, and reputational and financial risks. What if buyers, suppliers, shippers, and other supply chain actors could transact in a trusted network that keeps everyone in sync, in real-time and in strict privacy?

What are the use cases of blockchain for supply chain? By leveraging blockchain in the supply chain, Distributed Ledger Technology applications enable global trading partners to transact securely and with consensus over shared facts to increase efficiency, transparency and visibility. Blockchain use cases for supply chain include immutability into the provenance of goods, the elimination of reconciliation pain across multiple parties and the real-time visibility to perform track and trace analysis, assess risks and accelerate physical and financial supply chains. Discover how blockchain is revolutionizing supply chain and for a free trial today.

Understanding Blockchain As A Business Solution

Blockchain Helps Improve Supply Chain

The keyword for a better understanding of blockchain as a concept is transaction. Blockchain is an Internet-based, distributed technology that does an interesting trick combining two, seemingly contradictory each other features: transparent, publicly visible transactions on the one hand and heavy encryption with maximum data security on the other.

Three more keywords would be needed to understand how such public-but-secure transactions might be possible distributed ledger, node, and miner.

Distributed ledger is a blockchain infrastructure and its functional protocol simultaneously. Visually, it can be presented as a network of numerous entities that has no centralized authorities.

How can a distributed system be more secure than a centralized system where the core server is expected to monitor potential data manipulations?

The answer is in the multiplicity itself: any decentralized data system would be essentially immune to data breach simply because all its data is stored as identical copies across the whole network.

In more simple terms: if you want to steal from a decentralized system or fabricate fragments of data in it you would have to do it not in one but in thousands of places at the same time. And thats just technically not doable.

Now to node. Nodes are blocks of data they are bones of the distributed ledger. Some refer to one node as one computer, others as one blockchain user in the established network.

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An Analysis Of Blockchain Adoption In Supply Chains Between 2010 And 2020

  • Centre for Blockchain Technologies, University College London, London, United Kingdom

In this research, the evolution of blockchain applied to supply chains has been mapped from the inception of the technology until June 2020, utilizing primarily public data sources. We have analyzed 271 blockchain projects on parameters such as their inception dates, types of blockchain, status, sectors applied to and type of organization that founded the project. We confirm generally understood trends in the blockchain market with new projects following the industrys general hype and funding levels. We observe most activity in the Agriculture/Grocery sector and the Freight/Logistics sector. We see the shift of market interest from private companies to public companies and consortia and the change in blockchain adoption from Ethereum to Hyperledger. Finally, we observe more market-ready solutions and fewer inactive projects for Hyperledger-based projects than Ethereum-based projects.

Q: How Does Blockchain Complement Other Technologies

In an increasingly smart world, one technology is not the answer rather its the convergence of technologies. Supported by 5G connectivity and with billions of IoT devices, enterprise blockchain technology will become particularly important. Additionally, there is great potential in blockchain for data-heavy and data-sensitive supply chains, from healthcare to logistics. The combination of blockchain and artificial intelligence is especially relevant here. The development of AI depends on data, and blockchain can enable its safe, coherent, and secure storage and exchange. In addition, blockchain helps to trace and determine the logic behind algorithmic decision-making processes.

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Applications Of Blockchain In Scm

Walmart, for example is using IBMâs Food Trust Blockchain System to keep track of its meat products and it sources from China and the Blockchain records where each piece of meat came from, processed, stored and its sell-by-date. Unilever, Nestle, Tyson and Dole also use Blockchain for similar purposes .

BHP Billiton, the worldâs largest mining firm, uses Blockchain to better track and record data throughout the mining process with its vendors. Not only increases efficiency internally, but it allows the company to have more effective communication with its partners .

De Beers, the Diamond-giant, uses Blockchain technology to track stones from the point they are minded right up to the point when they are sold to consumers. This ensures the company avoids âconflictâ or âblood diamondsâ and assures the consumers that they are buying the genuine piece .

Traceability Of Cold Chain

Shipping Industry Turns to Blockchain for Supply Chain Management

Food and pharmaceutical products have a lot in common regarding storage and shipping. Temperature, humidity, vibration, and other environmental variables can get recorded using blockchain and IoT sensors on products. The data gets recorded in a blockchain, and smart contracts ensure that any readings that move out of range are automatically corrected.

Walmarts creative use of blockchain to trace the source and quality of its pork products arriving from China is one early example of blockchain in the food supply chain. Walmart now requires all of its spinach and lettuce suppliers to use blockchain due to the technologys success in the supply chain.

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Blockchain: The Future Of Logistics And Supply Chain Management

In 2020 the Global Logistics market was valued at almost £6.5 trillion.

As the industry continue to grow at pace, it is becoming more and more demanding, therefore creating greater challenges for all companies operating in the supply chain. Stakeholders need to be agile and adapt to the re-shaped marketplace proactively.

One of the main challenges that key players in the sector face are increased flows of information within the supply chain, lack of speed and efficiency of the deliveries, poor inventory tracking and the discrepancies regarding the payment and invoicing.

With the expansion of the industry, the supply chain grows with it, and accordingly more and more parties become involved in it. Therefore, trust and collaboration are among the key enablers for more efficient and effective operations. However, sharing data between the different stakeholders presents an issue for all parts in the supply chain and here is where Blockchain has a significant role to play.

Popular Blockchain Supply Chain Use Cases

Leading companies in various sectors are actively exploring or implementing blockchain-based supply chain solutions. Some of the key examples of these include:

  • Walmart, in partnership with IBM, has been using blockchain for some of its vast supply chain operations. Two areas where Walmart employs blockchain are tracing the origin of mangoes sold in the retailerâs outlets and tracing pork imports from China. The blockchain system used by Walmart cuts the time required to properly trace the origin of mangoes from about 7 days to mere seconds.
  • BHP, one of the largest miners in the world, has introduced a blockchain-based supply chain solution to track and manage samples of minerals it mines and processes. Before the blockchain solution, the samples were handled and shared along the supply chain using Excel spreadsheets. This made sample management slow and prone to error.

With the introduction of the blockchain supply chain system, the quality, speed, and accuracy of sample management have all improved.

The pioneering lead by ADNOC opens up great opportunities for blockchain to be implemented in the oil industry on a wider scale. As commodity supply chains, including oil supply chains, involve a great deal of complexity, blockchain has vast potential in this massive and lucrative industry.

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